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Sección de Artículos

Virtualización de Equipos


Virtualización de Equipos

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(Sistemas)
Escrito el 26-07-2016 a las 23:33
Virtualización de Equipos

La virtualización es la creación -a través de software- de una versión virtual de algún recurso tecnológico, como puede ser una plataforma de hardware, un sistema operativo, un dispositivo de almacenamiento u otros recursos de red.

Tanto en el mundo empresarial como para los usuarios domésticos la virtualización lo está invadiendo todo porque aporta numerosas ventajas como el ahorro de costes energéticos, de hardware, de mantenimiento…

La virtualización es la mejor opción para el iniciarse en el aprendizaje de sistemas operativos distintos al que tenemos instalado en nuestro ordenador o para la evaluación de programas en desarrollo cuando no se dispone de equipos físicos con los que realizar las pruebas.

En entornos de escritorio es utilizada para crear equipos completos por medio de la virtualización de segundo nivel.

Tipos de Virtualización

Podemos encontrarnos con dos tipos de virtualización:

  1. 1er Nivel: se instala directamente sobre el equipo haciendo éste las funciones tanto de sistema operativo como las de virtualización.
  2. 2º Nivel: debe ser instalado en un equipo que cuente con un sistema operativo previo (como Ubuntu, BSD, Windows o Mac OS X).

Virtualización de 1er nivel

Virtualización de 1er nivel

También denominado nativo, unhosted o bare metal (sobre el metal desnudo), el software de virtualización se instala directamente en el equipo anfitrión sin la necesidad de un SO previo, y se ejecuta directamente sobre el hardware.

Para cada máquina se crea una capa de virtualización que emula todos los componentes hardware (memoria, procesador, discos, puertos, etc.) que necesitan las máquinas virtuales para funcionar. De esta manera cada una de las máquinas que se vayan creando, utilizarán los recursos hardware del anfitrión (capa de hardware real) como si fueran parte de su propio sistema.

Cada una de las máquinas dispone de recursos hardware sobre los que poder instalar el SO y las aplicaciones de usuario.

Virtualización de 2º nivel

Virtualización de 2o nivel

También denominado hosted, el software de virtualización se instala y ejecuta sobre el SO del equipo anfitrión.

Al igual que en el de 1er nivel cada una de las máquinas virtuales creadas utiliza una capa de virtualización de hardware, para emular los componentes hardware necesarios para su funcionamiento.

La principal diferencia entre los dos niveles de virtualización es que el de 2º nivel precisa de un interlocutor (SO del equipo anfitrión) para comunicarse con el hardware del anfitrión.

Soluciones de virtualización

  • La virtualización consiste emular el hardware mediante una aplicación llamada "hypervisor", de tal forma que permita ejecutar uno o varios sistemas operativos, es decir, desvincular la ejecución del sistema operativo y aplicaciones del hardware para encapsularlo dentro de un entorno virtual simulado por software.
Hypervisor
  • La virtualización empaqueta el hardware, sistema operativo, aplicaciones y datos de las máquinas virtuales en ficheros, que como tales son trasportables de una máquina física a otra. La virtualización es aplicable tanto a servidores como a equipos de escritorio.
Virtualizaciones
  • La virtualización ofrece numerosas ventajas, tanto aplicada a servidores como a equipos de escritorio, a costa de una pequeña carga de trabajo adicional en los host. En infraestructuras con varios servidores o múltiples equipos de escritorio, el retorno de la inversión está asegurado en periodos de tiempo muy breves.
Ventajas

Consolidación

  • La consolidación se refiere a ejecutar varias máquinas virtuales en un mismo servidor o host, reduciendo así el número total de máquinas físicas. Dado que el promedio de carga de trabajo de los host es de aproximadamente el 20%, con la consolidación podemos reducir el número de máquinas físicas en un 500%
Consolidación

Al reducir el número de máquinas físicas se reduce tanto su consumo eléctrico como su mantenimiento, que habitualmente supera el coste de la propia máquina.

Alta Disponibilidad

  • El tener las máquinas encapsuladas en ficheros y desligadas del hardware donde se ejecutan permite gestionarlas con facilidad, moviéndolas de un host a otro para labores de mantenimiento, sin necesidad de apagarlas, o arrancándolas automáticamente en otro host en caso de que falle el que las ejecuta.
Disponibilidad

La virtualización reduce los tiempos de parada tanto planificados como no planificados, aumentando la productividad..

Recuperación de Desastres

  • La facilidad para mover máquinas virtuales de un host a otro no sólo sirve para mejorar la disponibilidad, también simplifica enormemente las tareas de recuperación de desastres.
  • La recuperación de desastres se simplifica enormemente ya que las máquinas se pueden mover de un host a otro sin modificarlas.
Recuperación de Desastres

Software de Virtualización

Programas para la virtualización de 1er nivel

ProgramaEnlace
VMware ESXiEnlace
Citrix XenServerEnlace
Microsoft Hyper-V ServerEnlace
Oracle VMEnlace

Programas para la virtualización de 2º nivel

ProgramaEnlace
VirtualBoxEnlace
VMWare PlayerEnlace
Windows Virtual PCEnlace

 

Descargar documentoVirtualización de Equipos
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